Cold Lake overview
Cold Lake operations is the largest thermal in-situ heavy oil operation in the world. Cold Lake bitumen is located more than 400 metres below the surface out of the ground and we extract it by injecting steam into the oil sands to thin the heavy bitumen and enable it to flow to the surface through wellbores. Cold Lake produced more than 160,000 barrels of bitumen a day in 2011.
Our Cold Lake operations are located in northeastern Alberta near the communities of Cold Lake and Bonnyville.
Facilities and operations
Our leases at Cold Lake cover about 780 square kilometers of oil sands and we operate four plants in the area – Leming, Maskwa, Mahihkan and Mahkeses.
Our plant names have First Nations’ origins:
In 2004, Imperial received regulatory approval to expand Cold Lake operations in a new area called Nabiye. The expansion will include new producing well pads and a new bitumen-processing plant, and will add more than 40,000 barrels a day of production.
In 2010, Imperial received approval to amend its development plan to include technology improvements such as a field development plan to reduce surface footprint, a cogeneration facility to enhance energy efficiency and sulphur-removal facilities to reduce sulphur-dioxide emissions.
We anticipate this project will start up by year-end 2014.
Below is an update on the Nabiye Project
Growing responsibly at Cold Lake
Our Cold Lake operation produced its one billionth barrel in 2009, the only in-situ operation in Canada to have achieved this milestone. This success represents 40 years of perseverance, a commitment to research and development of new technologies, and continuous improvement across every facet of the operation.
When we purchased the Cold Lake leases decades ago, the technology to produce the resource economically did not exist.
We challenged our research teams to devise new recovery technologies that would reduce costs while minimizing environmental impacts, and they responded by developing and patenting cyclic steam stimulation in 1966 and steam-assisted gravity drainage in 1982, two processes that have underpinned the development of in-situ oil sands in Canada.
To reduce costs and optimize development, our engineers designed a long-term, phased approach to growth. This was a departure from the megaproject convention of the time, but paced development provided the platform for responsible growth that continues today. It enabled us to improve every step of the way – continuously investing in research and steadily reducing the environmental footprint of our operations.
To reduce the surface footprint of the thousands of wells required for an expanding commercial operation, we developed the megapad approach. It employs multiple wells drilled from a single surface location, enabling a smaller footprint, more efficient resource recovery, reduced development costs and improved economics. Application of improvements to drilling and recovery technology for our next expansion will reduce the number of well pads required to access the resource, and as a result will reduce the associated surface disturbance by more than 40 percent.
From the outset, Imperial also recognized the need to reduce fresh water requirements. We pioneered water recycling techniques at Cold Lake, and through continuous improvements fresh water requirements have dropped to about half a barrel for each barrel of bitumen produced. This is 88 percent less fresh water per unit of production than in the mid-1970s. Today, the operation recycles about 95 percent of the produced water that is recovered with the oil. Commercial trials and research are ongoing to develop new solvent-based processing techniques to further reduce fresh water use.